Gross margin is the difference between costs and selling prices.

The gross margin calculation formula is a fundamental tool for businesses to assess their profitability. It provides insight into the financial health of a company by determining the percentage of revenue that remains after deducting the cost of goods sold (COGS). This formula is essential for decision-making as it helps businesses understand their pricing strategies, production efficiency, and overall profitability.

For instance, you are running a small bakery and want to calculate the gross margin for a batch of cupcakes. Here's the information you have:

Total revenue from cupcake sales: $500

Cost of ingredients and direct labor: $200

To calculate the gross margin, you can follow these steps:

Step 1: Determine the Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)

COGS includes the direct costs associated with producing the cupcakes, such as the cost of ingredients and direct labor. In this case, the COGS is $200.

Step 2: Calculate the Gross Profit

The gross profit is the difference between the total revenue and the COGS. In this example, the gross profit is $500 – $200 = $300.

Step 3: Calculate the Gross Margin

The gross margin is expressed as a percentage and represents the portion of revenue that remains after deducting COGS. To calculate the gross margin, divide the gross profit by the total revenue and multiply by 100:

Gross Margin = (Gross Profit / Total Revenue) x 100

In this example, the gross margin is ($300 / $500) x 100 = 60%.

So, the gross margin for this batch of cupcakes is 60%.

Keep in mind that the gross margin represents the profitability of a company's core operations, excluding other expenses such as overhead costs, taxes, and interest.